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_include, _revinclude, _with
Include associated resources

_include

Syntax for the _include search parameter:
_include(:reverse|:iterate|:logical)=(source-type:)search-param:(:target-type)
Here search-param is a name of the search parameter with the type reference defined for source-type.
This query can be interpreted in the following manner. For the source-type resources in the result include all target-type resources, which are referenced by the search-param. If you skip the source-type, it will be set to the resource-type you are searching for:
GET /Encounter?_include=subject:Patient
=> GET /Encounter?_include=Encounter:subject:Patient
target-type is optional for not chained includes and means all referenced resource-types:
GET /Encounter?_include=subject
=> GET /Encounter?_include=subject:*
For more explicit interpretation and for performance reason, client must provide target-type for chained includes!

_include=*

You can include all resources referenced from the search result using *. This is considered bad practice because it's too implicit. This feature is only implemented for conformance with the FHIR specification. Please avoid using it!
_include=* could not be used as part of chained (rev)includes!
GET /Encounter?_include=*

_revinclude

Syntax for revinclude:
_revinclude(:reverse|:iterate|:logical)=(source-type:)search-param(:target-type)
Interpretation**:** include all source-type resources, which refer target-type resources by search-param in the result set.

:logical modifier

If you provide :logical modifier, Aidbox will include logically referenced resources as well. Logical reference means reference with attribute type set to resource-type and identifier attribute set to one of identifier of referenced resource. Example:
GET
PUT Patient
PUT Encounter
GET /Encounter?_include:logical=patient
GET /Encounter?_with=patient:logical
GET /Patient?_revinclude:logical=Encounter:patient:Patient
GET /Patient?_with=Encounter.patient:logical
PUT /Patient
resourceType: Patient
id: pat-123
identifier:
- {system: 'ssn', value: '78787878'}
PUT /Encounter
resourceType: Encounter
id: enc-123
subject:
type: Patient
identifier: {system: 'ssn', value: '78787878'}
class: {code: 'IMP',
system: 'http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/v3-ActCode',
display: 'inpatient encounter'}
status: finished

Chained (rev)includes

Client can chain (rev)includes to load next level of references. (Rev)includes should go in a proper loading order. According to the FHIR specification, for chained includes a client must specify the :iterate modifier. However, in Aidbox this modifier is optional (it's better to skip it).
GET
PUT RequestGroup
GET /RequestGroup?_include=encounter\
&_include=patient:Patient\
&_include=Patient:organization\
&_revinclude=AllergyIntolerance:patient:Patient\
&_revinclude=Condition:subject:Patient\
&_include=author:PractitionerRole\
&_include=PractitionerRole:practitioner:Pracitioner\
&_include=PractitionerRole:location\
&_revinclude=Contract:subject:PractitionerRole\
&_include=MedicationRequest:medication\
&_include=MedicationRequest:requester:PractitionerRole\
&_include=MedicationRequest:intended-performer:Organization\
&_include=MedicationRequest:intended-performer:Organization
PUT /RequestGroup/example
encounter: {id: enc-234, resourceType: Encounter}
reasonCode:
- {text: Treatment}
authoredOn: '2019-03-06T17:31:00Z'
resourceType: RequestGroup
note:
- {text: Additional notes about the request group}
author: {display: Practitioner/1}
contained:
- id: medicationrequest-1
intent: proposal
status: unknown
subject: {id: pat-234, resourceType: Patient}
medication:
CodeableConcept: {text: Medication 1}
resourceType: MedicationRequest
- id: medicationrequest-2
intent: proposal
status: unknown
subject: {id: pat-234, resourceType: Patient}
medication:
CodeableConcept: {text: Medication 2}
resourceType: MedicationRequest
priority: routine
status: draft
id: example
groupIdentifier: {value: '00001', system: 'http://example.org/treatment-group'}
identifier:
- {value: requestgroup-1}
intent: plan
action:
- description: Administer medications at the appropriate time
textEquivalent: Administer medication 1, followed an hour later by medication 2
participant:
- {display: Practitioner/1}
title: Administer Medications
prefix: '1'
selectionBehavior: all
requiredBehavior: must
timing: {dateTime: '2019-03-06T19:00:00Z'}
groupingBehavior: logical-group
action:
- id: medication-action-1
type:
coding:
- {code: create}
resource: {localRef: medicationrequest-1}
description: Administer medication 1
- id: medication-action-2
type:
coding:
- {code: create}
resource: {localRef: medicationrequest-2}
description: Administer medication 2
relatedAction:
- offset:
Duration: {unit: h, value: 1}
actionId: medication-action-1
relationship: after-end
precheckBehavior: 'yes'
cardinalityBehavior: single
subject: {id: pat-234, resourceType: Patient}
text: {div: '<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Example RequestGroup illustrating related actions to administer medications in sequence with time delay.</div>', status: generated}
Client must always specify target-type and source-type for intermediate (rev)includes because this is explicit and allows Aidbox to prepare dependency graph before query!
To save some keystrokes, you can group _(rev)include params of the same level as a comma separated list:
GET /RequestGroup?_include=encounter,patient:Patient,author:PractitionerRole
Here is the discussion in the FHIR chat about the :iterate ambiguity. We appreciate your opinion!

Recursive (rev)includes

For self-referencing resources, you can specify the :recurse or :iterate modifier with source-type=target-type to recursively get all children or parents:
GET
PUT Obs1
PUT Obs2
PUT Obs3
GET /Observation?_include:recurse=has-member
put /Observation/bloodgroup
category:
- text: Laboratory
coding:
- {code: laboratory,
system: 'http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category',
display: Laboratory}
value:
CodeableConcept:
text: A
coding:
- {code: '112144000', system: 'http://snomed.info/sct',
display: Blood group A (finding)}
resourceType: Observation
status: final
effective: {dateTime: '2018-03-11T16:07:54+00:00'}
id: bloodgroup
code:
text: Blood Group
coding:
- {code: 883-9, system: 'http://loinc.org',
display: 'ABO group [Type] in Blood'}
subject: {id: pat-234, resourceType: Patient}
put /Observation/rhstatus
category:
- text: Laboratory
coding:
- {code: laboratory, system: 'http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category', display: Laboratory}
meta: {lastUpdated: '2019-12-17T13:44:27.218564Z', createdAt: '2019-12-17T13:44:27.218564Z', versionId: '99'}
value:
CodeableConcept:
text: A
coding:
- {code: '112144000', system: 'http://snomed.info/sct', display: Blood group A (finding)}
resourceType: Observation
status: final
effective: {dateTime: '2018-03-11T16:07:54+00:00'}
id: rhstatus
code:
text: Blood Group
coding:
- {code: 883-9, system: 'http://loinc.org', display: 'ABO group [Type] in Blood'}
subject: {id: pat-234, resourceType: Patient}
put /Observation/bgpanel
category:
- text: Laboratory
coding:
- {code: laboratory, system: 'http://terminology.hl7.org/CodeSystem/observation-category', display: Laboratory}
hasMember:
- {id: bloodgroup, resourceType: Observation}
- {id: rhstatus, resourceType: Observation}
meta: {lastUpdated: '2019-12-17T13:45:37.780512Z', createdAt: '2019-12-17T13:45:37.780512Z', versionId: '106'}
resourceType: Observation
status: final
effective: {dateTime: '2018-03-11T16:07:54+00:00'}
id: bgpanel
code:
text: Blood Group Panel
coding:
- {code: 34532-2, system: 'http://loinc.org', display: ' Blood type and Indirect antibody screen panel - Blood'}
subject: {id: pat-234, resourceType: Patient}
GET /Observation?_include:iterate=Observation:has-member:Observation
GET
PUT Org1
PUT Org2
PUT Org3
PUT Org4
# get all children
GET /Organization?_revinclude:recurse=Organization:partof
put /Organization/org-123
name: Blackwood Hospital
put /Organization/org-234
name: Blackwood Hospital Department
partOf:
resourceType: Organization
id: org-123
put /Organization/org-345
name: Blackwood Hospital Department Facility
partOf:
resourceType: Organization
id: org-234
put /Organization/org-456
name: Blackwood Hospital Department Facility Room 1
partOf:
resourceType: Organization
id: org-345
# get all children
GET /Organization?_revinclude:iterate=Organization:partof:Organization
# get all parents
GET /Organization?_include:recurse=partof
# get all parents
GET /Organization?_include:iterate=Organization:partof:Organization

Using the _with parameter

FHIR (rev)include syntax is non-DRY and sometimes confusing. We introduced the _with parameter that is a simple (like GraphQL) DSL to describe includes in a more compact way.
expr = param-expr (space param-expr)*
param-expr = param ( '{' typed-ref-expr (space typed-ref-expr)* '}')?
typed-ref-expr = resource-type | resource-type '{' expr '}'
param = resource-type '.' param-name (':recur' | ':logical') ? | param-name (':recur' | ':logical') ?
space = ',' | ' ' | '\n'
param-name = ALPAHNUM
Examples:
Encounter?_with=patient
=> Encounter?_include=Encounter:patient
---
Encounter?_with=patient,participant
=> Encounter?_include=Encounter:patient,Encounter:participant
---
Encounter?_with=patient{Patient}
=> Encounter?_include=Encounter:patient:Patient
---
Encounter?_with=patient{Patient{organization}}
=> Encounter?_include=Encounter:patient:Patient&
_include(:iterate)=Patient:organization
---
Encounter?_with=patient{Patient{organization{Organization{partof:recur}}}}
=> Encounter?_include=Encounter:patient:Patient&
_include(:iterate)=Patient:organization
_include(:recurse)=Organization:parto-of
---
Patient?_with=organization,Condition.patient,MedicationStatement.patient{medication}
=> Patient?_include=Patient:organization&
_revinclude=Condition:patient:Patient
_revinclude=MedicationStatement:patient:Patient
_include=MedicationStatement:medication
---
RequestGroup?_with=
author
patient{Patient{organization,AllergyIntolerance.patient}}
target{
MedicationRequest{
medication
intended-performer{Organization}
requester{PractitionerRole{practitioner,location}}}}
=>
RequestGroup?_include=patient,author
&_include:iterate=RequestGroup:target:MedicationRequest
&_include:iterate=MedicationRequest:medication
&_include:iterate=MedicationRequest:requester:PractitionerRole
&_include:iterate=MedicationRequest:intended-performer:Organization
&_include:iterate=PractitionerRole:practitioner
&_include:iterate=Patient:organization
&_include:iterate=PractitionerRole:location
&_revinclude:iterate=AllergyIntolerance:patient
---
Organization?partof:recur{Organization}
=> Organization?_include:recurse=partof:Organization

(rev)include and _elements

You can use the extended elements parameter to control elements of (rev)included resources by prefixing desired elements with the resource type:
GET /Encounter?_include=patient&_elements=id,status,Patient.name,Patient.birthDate
Last modified 12d ago