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Evaluation engines

Evaluation engines are used to implement checks for AccessPolicy rules
Aidbox provides several ways to specify rules for AccessPolicy resources — so called evaluation engines. They come with their own syntax and offer varying degrees of flexibility and convenience for writing those rules.
There are five main engines. They are used to specify rules for a generic request object.
  • Allow
  • JSON Schmea
  • SQL
  • Matcho
  • Complex
There are also two additional engines which serve as a convenient way to write rules specifically for RPC endpoints.
  • Allow-RPC
  • Matcho-RPC
All of them are described in a greater detail below.

Allow

allow engine always evaluates to true regardless of a request object. Use it if you want to provide an unrestricted access to everything.

Example

resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: this-policy-allows-everything
engine: allow
link:
- { resourceType: User, id: admin }

JSON Schema

json-schema engine allows you to use JSON Schema to validate the request object. It is specified under schema field of AccessPolicy resource. Currently supported JSON Schema version is draft-07.
Fields with empty values — [], {}, "", null — are removed from request before before access policy checks are applied to it. Make sure to specify all necessary fields as required.

Example

The following policy requires request.params.resource/type to be present and have a value of "Organization":
resourceType: AccessPolicy
engine: json-schema
schema:
properties:
params:
required: [resource/type]
properties:
resource/type:
const:
Organization

SQL

sql engine executes an SQL statement and uses its return value as an evaluation result. Thus the statement should return a single row with just one column:
SELECT true FROM patient WHERE id = {{jwt.patient_id}} LIMIT 1;
SQL statement can refer to request fields with a double curly braces interpolation. String inside the braces will be used as a path to value in the request object.

Example

Suppose that we are checking a request that comes with a User resource referencing a Practitioner through User.data.practitioner_id element. The following policy allows requests only to /fhir/Patient/<patient_id> URLs and only to those patients who have a Patient.generalPractitioner element referencing the same practitioner as a User of our current request. In other words, User as a Practitioner is only allowed to see his own patients — those who reference him as their generalPractitioner.
resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: practitioner-only-allowed-to-see-his-patients
engine: sql
sql:
query: |
SELECT
{{user}} IS NOT NULL
AND {{user.data.practitioner_id}} IS NOT NULL
AND {{uri}} LIKE '/fhir/Patient/%'
AND resource->'generalPractitioner' @>
jsonb_build_array(jsonb_build_object('resourceType',
'Practitioner', 'id', {{user.data.practitioner_id}}::text))
FROM patient WHERE id = {{params.resource/id}};

Interpolation Rules

You can parameterize your SQL queries with request object using {{path}} syntax. For example, to get a user role provided at {user: {data: {role: "admin"}}} you write {{user.data.role}}. Parameter expressions are escaped by default to protect from SQL injection.
For dynamic queries — to parameterize table name, for example — you have to use {{!path}} syntax. The expression SELECT true from {{!params.resource/type}} limit 1 when a request contains {params: {"resource/type": "Patient"}} will be transformed into SELECT true from "patient". By default identifier names are double quoted and lower-cased.

Matcho

matcho engine leverages Matcho pattern matching — custom DSL developed by Health Samurai. It has very compact and declarative syntax with a limited expressivity. It is well-suited for writing all sorts of rules and thus is one of the easiest options to specify AccessPolicy checks.
resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: practitioner-only-who-works-in-inpatient-department-allowed-to-see-his-patients
engine: matcho
matcho:
user:
# user.department should be equal to inpatient
department: inpatient
# user.data.practitioner_id should be present
data:
practitioner_id: present?
# uri should match regexp
uri: '#/Encounter.*'
# request method should be GET or POST
request-method: {$enum: ['get', 'post']}
params:
# practitioner param should be equal to user.data.practitioner_id
practitioner: .user.data.practitioner_id
Match DSL definition:
  • If pattern is a dictionary, search for its inclusion into a test subject. This algorithm is nested and recursive. Pattern {x: 1} matches {x: 1, y: 2, …} ``Pattern {a: {b: 5} matches {a: {b: 5, c: 6, …}, d: 7, …}
  • If a pattern is an array, search for its elements in the order given. Pattern [1, 2] matches [1, 2, 3, …]
  • Primitive values — strings, numbers and booleans — are compared by value.
  • If a string starts with # , it is treated as a regular expression. Pattern {a: "#\\d+"} matches {a: "2345"}
  • If a string starts with . , it is interpreted as a path in the current test subject. Pattern {params: {user_id: ".user.id"}} matches {user: {id: 1}, params: {user_id: 1}} where user.id == param.user_id.
  • Special string literals (postfixed with ?)
    • present? — matches non-null values; Pattern {a: "present?"} matches {a: 5} or {a: {b: 6}}
    • nil? — matches null values;
    • not-blank? — matches non-empty string.
  • Special keys:
    • $enum — value must be equal to one of the items in the enumeration. Pattern {request-method: {$enum: ["get", "post"]}} matches {request-method: "post"}
    • $one-of — value must match any of the patterns. Pattern {a: {$one-of: [{b: "present?"}, {c: "present?"}]} matches {a: {c: 5}}
    • $reference — parse Reference or string into aidbox format. Examples:
      • Parse Reference elements
        • parser: {reference: "Patient/pid"} => {id: "pid", resourceType: "Patient"}
        • {resource: {patient: {$reference: {id: '.user.data.patient_id'}}}
      • Parse reference string
        • "Patient/pid" => {id: "pid", resourceType: "Patient"}
        • {params: {subject: {$reference: {id: '.user.data.patient_id'}}}
    • $contains — collection must contain at least one match. Pattern {type: {$contains: {system: "loinc"}} matches {type: [{system: "snomed"}, {system: "loinc"}]}
    • $every — each item in a collection must satisfy a pattern. Pattern {col: {"$every": {foo: "bar"}} matches {col: [{foo: "bar"}, {foo: "bar", baz: "quux"}]}
    • $not — negates a pattern. Pattern {message: {$not: {status: private}} matches {message: {status: public}} and does not match {message: {status: private}}. Be careful using $not as it is possible to create too permissive policies.
    • $present-all — checks that every element in $present-all are present in the original array, with no sort check. It can be combined with $length.
    • $length — checks the length of the array.
Consider the following policy which uses $not key.
resourceType: AccessPolicy
engine: matcho
matcho:
request-method: delete
uri: '#^/Patient.*$'
user: {$not: {data: {role: guest}}}
While original intent was to forbid guest users to delete Patient resources this AccessPolicy allows to do DELETE /Patient/<id> for all the other users including unauthorized ones. In this case it is better to explicitly list allowed roles with $enum.

Examples

resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: only-users-working-in-inpatient-department
engine: matcho
matcho:
request-method: delete
uri: '#^/Patient.*$'
user: {department: {$contains: inpatient}}
resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: only-authorized-users-can-get-patients-or-encountres
engine: matcho
matcho:
user: present?
request-method: get
params:
resource/type: {$enum: ['Patient', 'Encounter']}
# when searching for encounter require
# practitioner value to be equal to user.data.pract_id
resourceType: AccessPolicy
engine: matcho
matcho:
user: {data: {pract_id: present?}}
uri: '/Encounter'
params:
practitioner: '.user.data.pract_id'
resourceType: AccessPolicy
engine: matcho
matcho:
resource:
$length: 2
$present-all:
- resourceType: Patient
- resourceType: Encounter
Need help with matcho engine? Contact us on the telegram chat!

Complex

complex engine allows you to combine several rules with and and or operators. You can use any engine rule to define a rule and even complex engine itself but it is forbidden to have both and and or keys on the same level. Rules are defined as an array of objects which must include an engine with a set of corresponding keys.

How AND & OR work

Aidbox applies inner policies one after the other top-bottom.

AND rule

Aidbox applies polices till one of two evens happens:
  1. 1.
    One policy rejects the access. No further policies are applied. The access is rejected
  2. 2.
    There is no more policies to evaluate. It means the access is granted

OR rule

Aidbox applies policies till at lest one grants the access. If it is happened no further policies are applied.

Example 1

resourceType: AccessPolicy
engine: complex
and:
- { engine: "sql", sql: { query: "select true" } } # check-1
- engine: complex
or:
- { engine: "sql", sql: { query: "select false" } } # check-2
- { engine: "sql", sql: { query: "select false" } } # check-3
Policy in the example above represents the following logical expression: check-1 AND (check-2 OR check-3)

Example 2

Let's split SQL policy example from above into two separate rules and combine them under and rule:
resourceType: AccessPolicy
engine: complex
and:
# Rule: request.user && request.user.data.practitioner_id are required
- engine: json-schema
schema:
type: object
required: ["user"]
properties:
user:
type: object
required: ["data"]
properties:
data:
type: object
required: ["practitioner_id"]
# Rule: current practitioner is patient’s generalPractitioner
- engine: sql
sql:
query: |
SELECT
{{uri}} LIKE '/fhir/Patient/%'
AND resource->'generalPractitioner' @>
jsonb_build_array(jsonb_build_object('resourceType',
'Practitioner', 'id', {{user.data.practitioner_id}}::text))
FROM patient WHERE id = {{params.resource/id}};

Allow-RPC

Requires to specify type: rpc for AccessPolicy resource.
allow-rpc engine allows access to every RPC endpoint listed under the rpc field of the AccessPolicy resource.

Example

resourceType: AccessPolicy
type: rpc
engine: allow-rpc
rpc:
aidbox.notebooks.list-notebooks: true

Matcho-RPC

Requires to specify type: rpc for AccessPolicy resource.
matcho-rpc allows access to all endpoints that satisfy specified Matcho rules.

Example 1

resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: allow-everyone-to-access-hello-notebook
type: rpc
engine: matcho-rpc
rpc:
aidbox.notebooks/get-notebook-by-id:
params:
notebook:
id: hello

Example 2

To control tenant access, use tenant/org in macho-rpc. tenant/org contains the current organization id in the multitenancy API.
resourceType: AccessPolicy
id: client-uses-rpc-method-on-org-a
type: rpc
engine: matcho-rpc
rpc:
rpc-method-name:
uri: "/Organization/org-a/rpc"
# organization id should persist
tenant/org: "present?"
# client.details.org-id field should be equal to current organization id
client:
details:
org-id: ".tenant/org.id"