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C-CDA

This page describes C-CDA built-in module which provides API to convert C-CDA documents to FHIR documents and backward.

Introduction

The HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) is an XML-based markup standard intended to specify the encoding, structure and semantics of clinical documents for exchange. It’s the most widely used format for health information exchange in the US today. To help developers to comply with § 170.315(g)(9) ONC criterion Aidbox provides endpoint to convert CCDA documents to FHIR format.
Aidbox C-CDA converter aims to handle all data elements included into USCDI v1, more recent USCDI versions will be supported later.
You can quickly evaluate C-CDA to FHIR Converter on our C-CDA to FHIR Demo page.

Converting a C-CDA document to FHIR

To perform C-CDA to FHIR conversion without storing FHIR resources in the Aidbox database, use the /ccda/to-fhir endpoint. Simply POST C-CDA XML document in request body as in the following example:
POST /ccda/to-fhir
Authorization: .....
Content-Type: application/cda+xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ClinicalDocument
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns="urn:hl7-org:v3" ...>
....
</ClinicalDocument>
Please note theContent-Type: application/cda+xml header. Any other MIME type will be rejected by this endpoint.
If conversion was successful, you'll get a FHIR Document as a result. Accordingly to the FHIR Documents specification, the first resource in the resulting bundle is Composition resource containing document header information as well as the list of document sections.
// POST /ccda/to-fhir
// HTTP/1.1 200 OK
{
"resourceType" : "Bundle",
"type" : "document",
"entry" : [ {
"resource" : {
"resourceType": "Composition",
"date" : "2015-06-22",
"section" : [ {
"code" : {
"coding" : [ {
"code" : "48765-2",
"display" : "48765-2",
"system" : "http://loinc.org"
} ]
},
"title" : "ALLERGIES AND ADVERSE REACTIONS",
"author" : [ {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:f7a93b9c-f490-dee8-a1ce-e3bf5f0360cc"
} ],
"entry" : [ {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:468e2476-2095-240f-84b6-8f05b0d97637"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:5082dbe5-1c5a-326a-a72b-a0d73216a679"
} ],
"text" : {
"div" : "<table width='100%' border='1'>\n<thead>\n<tr>\n<th>\nSubstance\n</th>\n<th>\nReaction\n</th>\n<th>\nSeverity\n</th>\n<th>\nStatus\n</th>\n</tr>\n</thead>\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td>\n<content ID='product1'>\nPenicillin G\n</content>\n</td>\n<td>\n<content ID='reaction1'>\nHives\n</content>\n</td>\n<td>\n<content ID='severity1'>\nModerate\n</content>\n</td>\n<td>\nActive\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>\n<content ID='product2'>\nAmpicillin\n</content>\n</td>\n<td>\n<content ID='reaction2'>\nHives\n</content>\n</td>\n<td>\n<content ID='severity2'>\nModerate\n</content>\n</td>\n<td>\nActive\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>",
"status" : "generated"
}
}, {
"code" : {
"coding" : [ {
"code" : "10160-0",
"display" : "HISTORY OF MEDICATION USE",
"system" : "http://loinc.org"
} ]
},
"title" : "MEDICATIONS",
"entry" : [ {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:4ddb05da-b1e6-685a-5c08-f28210d31d5d"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:6f87fc48-b173-97c0-a5fd-1b7e483d5c67"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:b8b29b52-ecb1-7e69-bee9-52af94d0c174"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:cb89a5f1-994b-1660-584d-4e6c4b4cdc33"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:453f59c9-b057-44a3-e3be-56e660ea3abd"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:ea565d25-d34c-7dbe-819b-f92c9a26792f"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:5bda5eea-744c-a6e9-7c65-e9b676577a13"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:7154267b-efe9-c424-504b-a885ea734fdd"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:2608dce8-3663-d3e7-ad9e-fe8fef7748ad"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:e6941356-69b2-c13c-408a-51918e5b9674"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:fc569f5d-e27a-51ed-6289-ea6013b8225c"
}, {
"uri" : "urn:uuid:21781c99-5265-7693-5c3c-7b6081d87b0d"
} ]
....
In case of error, OperationOutcome resource will be returned:
// POST /ccda/to-fhir
// HTTP/1.1 422 Unprocessable Entity
{
"resourceType": "OperationOutcome",
"id": "invalid",
"text": {
"status": "generated",
"div": "...."
},
"issue": [
{
"severity": "fatal",
"code": "invalid",
"diagnostics": "..."
}
]
}
Please note that this endpoint doesn't persist any populated FHIR data to Aidbox database. This endpoint is read-only and it performs a stateless conversion of the document from one format to another. To persist FHIR data extracted from a C-DDA document proceed to the Persisting a result of C-CDA to FHIR conversion section.

Endpoint options

There are several options you may pass to the /ccda/to-fhir endpoint. Options are passed as query string parameters, i.e. /ccda/to-fhir?option1=value1&option2=value2.
Option
Values
Description
format
aidbox | fhir Default: fhir
Format of resulting FHIR document. It's FHIR by default.
sections
Proceed to the Section Aliases table to find all possible values. Default: all
Comma-separated list of section aliases to process. By default all sections are processed.

Persisting result of C-CDA to FHIR conversion

If you wish to store C-CDA to FHIR conversion results in the Aidbox database, use /ccda/persist endpoint. After converting C-CDA document to FHIR document, this endpoint produces FHIR Transaction bundle to create or update existing resources. According to its transactional nature, any single failure in this transaction bundle will rollback a whole transaction and nothing will be saved. The following example demonstrates how to use /ccda/persist endpoint.
POST /ccda/persist
Authorization: .....
Content-Type: application/cda+xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ClinicalDocument
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns="urn:hl7-org:v3" ...>
....
</ClinicalDocument>
Persisting is heavily based on C-CDA's <id root="..."> element. If some entity in C-CDA document contains this element (identifier), this identifier will be used (in hashed form) as an ID for resulting FHIR resource. This means that resubmitting the same document several times will not produce duplicate resources in the database for C-CDA entities which contains <id> elements.
Additionally to the FHIR resources converted from C-CDA data, this endpoint will create Provenance resource which will contain references to all resources created or updated during single /ccda/persist call. It's useful to have such list to get all FHIR resources related to the specific C-CDA document. For instance, to wipe them out from the database.
Also, if create-docref option is provided, this endpoint will create a DocumentReference resource which will contain a base64-encoded copy of the original C-CDA XML document in it's content attribute. It's useful when you want to store original document in the Aidbox database for various rare use-cases. By default, create-docref option is set to false, so no DocumentReference resource is created.

Endpoint Options

Options are passed as query-string parameters, i.e. /ccda/persist?create-docref=true&option2=value2. sections are passed separated by commas, i.e. /ccda/persist?section=dicom,goals,findings.
Option
Values
Description
create-docref
true | false Default: false
Specifies if a DocumentReference resource is needed to store original XML document.
tenant-id
ID of Tenant resource Default: none
For Smartbox users only. Assigns Tenant to all populated resources.
sections
Proceed to the Section Aliases table to find all possible values. Default: all
Comma-separated list of section aliases to process. By default all sections are processed.

Section Aliases

Below is the list of section aliases and their corresponding OIDs. Section aliases are used to configure C-CDA endpoints to specify a list of sections to process.
Value
Section OID(s)
dicom
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.6.1.1
findings
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.6.1.2
assesment
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.8
goals
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.60
problems
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.5.1
health-concerns
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.58
medications
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.1.1
medical-equipment
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.23
immunizations
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.2
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.2.1
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.52
payers
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.18
vital-signs
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.4.1
social-history
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.17
procedures
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.7.1
encounters
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.22.1
notes
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.65
1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.1.3.5
plan-of-treatment
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.10
careteam
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.500
allergies
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.6.1
results
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.2.3.1

Validating a C-CDA document

Aidbox provides an endpoint to check correctness of C-CDA document. Despite the fact that C-CDA to FHIR conversion can be performed even on invalid C-CDA document (with undefined result), there are some use cases when you want to validate C-CDA document first. For instance, you can use this endpoint to check user-submitted document and reject if it's not valid.
There are two stages of C-CDA validation:
  • Structural validation (XSD) which checks that XML tree is properly formed
  • Schematron validation that checks the presence of data elements required by C-CDA specification
By default both stages are performed.
On C-CDA Converter Demo page only XSD validation is performed. Uploaded XML file will be highlighted with green color if the document is valid, red otherwise.
The following example demonstrates how to use validation endpoint:
POST /ccda/validate
Authorization: .....
Content-Type: application/cda+xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ClinicalDocument
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns="urn:hl7-org:v3" ...>
....
</ClinicalDocument>
If validation was successful, you will get the following response:
// POST /ccda/validate
// HTTP/1.1 200 OK
{
"result": true
}
In case of failed validation endpoint will return a list of errors and warnings:
// POST /ccda/validate
// HTTP/1.1 200 OK
{
"result": false,
"errors": [
{
"pattern": {
"id": "p-urn-hl7ii-2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.78-2014-06-09-errors"
},
"rule": {
"context": "//cda:observation[cda:templateId[@root='2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.78' and @extension='2014-06-09']]",
"id": "r-urn-hl7ii-2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.78-2014-06-09-errors"
},
"failed-assert": {
"location": "/ClinicalDocument/component/structuredBody/component[5]/section/entry[0]/observation",
"schematron": "count(cda:statusCode)=1",
"explanation": [
"SHALL contain exactly one [1..1] statusCode (CONF:1098-14809)."
],
"id": "a-1098-14809"
}
}
],
"warnings": [
{
"pattern": {
"id": "p-urn-oid-2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.64-warnings"
},
"rule": {
"context": "//cda:act[cda:templateId[@root='2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.64']]",
"id": "r-urn-oid-2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.64-warnings"
},
"failed-assert": {
"location": "/ClinicalDocument/component/structuredBody/component[1]/section/entry/substanceAdministration/entryRelationship[1]/act",
"schematron": "count(cda:author[cda:templateId[@root='2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.119']])=1",
"explanation": [
"SHOULD contain zero or one [0..1] Author Participation (identifier: urn:oid:2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.119) (CONF:81-9433)."
],
"id": "a-81-9433"
}
}
],
"no-of-fails": {
"errors": 1,
"warnings": 1
}
}

Endpoint options

Options are passed as query-string parameters, i.e. /ccda/validate?option1=value1&option2=value2.
Option
Values
Description
method
xsd | schematron | both Default: both
Type of validation to perform.